Most Common Sleep Disorders

The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) is the authorative clinical text for for the diagnosis of sleep disorders.  Now in its 3rd edition (as of 2014), the ICSD groups sleep disorders into 6 major categories.  These categories are:

1. Insomnia

The ICSD-3 defines insomnia as "a repeated difficulty with sleep initiation, duration, consolidation, or quality that occurs despite adequate
opportunity and circumstances for sleep, and results in some form of daytime impairment."AdobeStock_75792437-830829-edited.jpeg

The ICSD-3 groups insomnia into 4 major categories listed below.

a. Chronic insomnia disorder  

b. Short-term insomnia disorder

c. Other insomnia disorder

d. Isolated symptoms and normal variant

2. Sleep-related breathing disorders

These disorders are divided into those of central origin (characterized by a lack of breathing effort) and those caused by an obstruction of the airways.

a. Obstructive sleep apnea disorders  

i. Obstructive sleep apnea, adult

ii. Obstructive sleep apnea, pediatric

b. Central sleep apnea syndrome

i. Central sleep apnea with Cheyne-Stokes breathing

ii. Central sleep apnea due to a medical disorder w/o Cheyne-Stokes breathingcouple_in_bed_bad_snoring-940178-edited.jpeg

iii. Central sleep apnea due to high altitude periodic breathing

iv. Central sleep apnea due to medicaiton or substance

v. Primary central sleep apnea

vi. Primary central sleep apnea of infancy

vii. Primary central sleep apnea of prematurity

viii. Treatment-emergent central sleep apnea

c. Sleep-related hypoventilation disorders

i. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome

ii. Congenital central alveoloar hypoventilation syndrome

iii. Late-onset central hypoventilation with hypothalamic dysfunction

iv. Idiopathic central alveolar hypoventilation

v. Sleep-related hypoventilation due to medication or substance

vi. Sleep-related hypoventilation due to medical disorder

d. Sleep-related hypoxemia disorder

e. Isolated symptoms and normal variants

i. Snoring

ii. Catathrenia

3. Central disorders of hypersomnolence

The ICSD-3 categorizes this class of sleep disorders as those in which "the primary complaint is daytime sleepiness not caused by disturbed nocturnal sleep or misaligned circadian rhythms."

a. Narcolepsy type Inarcolepsy.jpg

b. Narcolepsy type II

c. Idiopathic hypersomnia

d. Kleine-Levin syndrome 

e. Hypersomnia due to a medical disorder

f. Hypersomnia due to a medication or substance

g. Hypersomnia associated with a psychiatric disorder

Example: Seasonal Affective Disorder

h. Insufficient sleep syndrome

4. Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders

These disorders are characterized by a disturbance or disruption to the normal circadian rhythm, which causes patients to experience excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia, or both.

a. Delayed sleep-wake phase disordertravel_tired.jpg

b. Advanced sleep-wake phase disorder

c. Irregular sleep-wake rhythm

d. Non-24-hour sleep-wake rhythm disorder

e. Shift work disorder

f. Jet lag disorder

g. Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder not otherwise specified (NOS)

5. Parasomnias

A parasomnia is an unwanted physical movement or action during sleep. This group of disorders is classified by disorders or arousal from NREM sleep, those associated with REM sleep, and other parasomnias.

a. NREM-related parasomnias

i. Disorders of arousal from NREM sleep

ii. Confusional arousals

iii. Sleepwalking

iv. Sleep terrors

v. Sleep-related eating disorders

b. REM-related parasomnias  medium.jpg

i. REM sleep behavior disorder

ii. Recurrent isolated sleep paralysis

iii. Nightmare disorder

c. Other parasomnias

i. Exploding head syndrome

ii. Sleep-related hallucinations

iii. Sleep enuresis

iv. Parasomnia due to medical disorder

v. Parasomnia due to medication or substance

vi. Parasomnia, unspecified

d. Isolated symptoms and normal variants

i. Sleep talking

6. Sleep-related movement disorders

This class of disorders is characterizeed by simple, often repetitive movements during sleep or wake that can disrupt the sleep of the patient, the patient's bed partner, or both.

a. Restelss leg syndrome  

b. Periodic limb movement disorderrestless_leg.jpeg

c. Sleep related leg cramps

d. Sleep-related bruxism

e. Sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder  

f. Benign sleep myoclonus of infancy

g. Propriospinal myoclonus at sleep onset

h. Sleep-related movement disorder due to medical disorder

i. Sleep-related movement disorder due to medication or substance

j. Sleep-related movement disorder, unspecified



Whatever sleep disorder you may be afflicted with, you can have confidence that our trained and trusted clinicians and staff will make every effort in helping you get the treatment you need.