The Most Common Sleep Disorders

Different Sleep DisordersSleep disorders are medical conditions that affect a person's sleep patterns.

The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) is the authoritative clinical text for the diagnosis of sleep disorders.

Now in its 3rd edition (as of 2014), the ICSD groups sleep disorders into 6 major categories.

These categories are:

1. Insomnia

The ICSD-3 defines insomnia as "a repeated difficulty with sleep initiation, duration, consolidation, or quality that occurs despite adequate opportunity and circumstances for sleep, and results in some form of daytime impairment."

The ICSD-3 group insomnia is into 4 major categories listed below.

a. Chronic insomnia disorder
b. Short-term insomnia disorder
c. Other insomnia disorders
d. Isolated symptoms and normal variant

2. Sleep-related breathing disorders

These disorders are divided into those of central origin (characterized by a lack of breathing effort) and those caused by an obstruction of the airways.

i. Obstructive sleep apnea, adult
ii. Obstructive sleep apnea, pediatric
i. Central sleep apnea with Cheyne-Stokes breathing
ii. Central sleep apnea due to a medical disorder w/o Cheyne-Stokes breathing
iii. Central sleep apnea due to high altitude periodic breathing
iv. Central sleep apnea due to medication or substance
v. Primary central sleep apnea
vi. Primary central sleep apnea of infancy
vii. Primary central sleep apnea of prematurity
viii. Treatment-emergent central sleep apnea
c. Sleep-related hypoventilation disorders
i. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome
ii. Congenital central alveolar hypoventilation syndrome
iii. Late-onset central hypoventilation with hypothalamic dysfunction
iv. Idiopathic central alveolar hypoventilation
v. Sleep-related hypoventilation due to medication or substance
vi. Sleep-related hypoventilation due to medical disorder
d. Sleep-related hypoxemia disorder
e. Isolated symptoms and normal variants
ii. Catathrenia

3. Central disorders of hypersomnolence

The ICSD-3 categorizes this class of sleep disorders as those in which "the primary complaint is daytime sleepiness not caused by disturbed nocturnal sleep or misaligned circadian rhythms."

e. Hypersomnia due to a medical disorder
f. Hypersomnia due to a medication or substance
g. Hypersomnia associated with a psychiatric disorder

4. Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders

These disorders are characterized by a disturbance or disruption to the normal circadian rhythm, which causes patients to experience excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia, or both.

a. Delayed sleep-wake phase disorder
b. Advanced sleep-wake phase disorder
c. Irregular sleep-wake rhythm
d. Non-24-hour sleep-wake rhythm disorder
g. Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder not otherwise specified (NOS)

5. Parasomnias

A parasomnia is an unwanted physical movement or action during sleep. This group of disorders is classified by disorders or arousal from NREM sleep, those associated with REM sleep, and other parasomnias.

a. NREM-related parasomnias
i. Disorders of arousal from NREM sleep
ii. Confusional arousals
v. Sleep-related eating disorders
b. REM-related parasomnias
c. Other parasomnias
ii. Sleep-related hallucinations
iv. Parasomnia due to medical disorder
v. Parasomnia due to medication or substance
vi. Parasomnia, unspecified
d. Isolated symptoms and normal variants
i. Sleep talking

6. Sleep-related movement disorders

This class of disorders is characterized by simple, often repetitive movements during sleep or wake that can disrupt the sleep of the patient, the patient's bed partner, or both.

c.Sleep-related leg cramps
e. Sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder
f. Benign sleep myoclonus of infancy
g. Propriospinal myoclonus at sleep onset
h. Sleep-related movement disorder due to medical disorder
i. Sleep-related movement disorder due to medication or substance
j. Sleep-related movement disorder, unspecified

Whatever sleep disorder you may be afflicted with, you can have confidence that our trained and trusted clinicians and staff will make every effort in helping you get the treatment you need.

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